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Building Information Modeling/ Virtual Design & Construction
Brogården in Alingsås is the first million homes program area to undergo conversion to passive buildings. Energy efficiency is one of the most important goals. Once the conversion of Brogården is completed, energy consumption will have been more than halved – from 216 kWh per m2annually to 92 kWh. That figure includes not only heating but also household and building electricity.
Our client, Alingsåshem AB, has always had a major focus on energy issues. They have taken a comprehensive approach to the million homes program buildings.
”If the customer had chosen to just patch things up, a new renovation would have been required in 15 to 30 years or, alternatively, the buildings would have had to be demolished during that period. Thanks to their comprehensive approach, these buildings now have an anticipated lifespan of between 50 and 70 years, and their energy performance will hopefully last just as many years,” says Martin Jorlöv, Project Manager for Brogården.
Skanska has generated an enormous knowledge bank that we refer to as Miljonhemmet. We have used tools from Miljonhemmet for Brogården. At the same time, the Brogården project has resulted in additional knowledge being added to that knowledge bank, for example new solutions we developed for constructing passive buildings.
Nobody has previously modified million homes program buildings in this manner, which is one of the reasons that Brogården has generated so much attention. The King and Queen and Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt are some of the many people who have visited the project.
Brogården was built between 1971 and 1973 and is comprised of 16 buildings with a total of 299 apartments. Our contract includes converting all 16 buildings. We have started work on six of those buildings and of those, four have been completed and handed back over to Alingsåshem. By mid-October 2010 we will begin stage 4, which involves the conversion of an additional four buildings.
Passive building technology means that we are constructing tight buildings with very good heat recovery. The apartments have no traditional heating systems, but are instead heated through the residents’ own body heat, lamps, household appliances, home electronics and solar radiation. Passive buildings are so energy-efficient that they require less than half as much energy as a traditionally constructed building.
Martin JorlövSkanska Sweden+46 10 44 86 018
Mejl Martin Jorlöv
Marknadssegment: Apartment buildings, Residential
In the project we have focused on three aspects – accessibility, social structures and the environment.
Brogården has a strong social network, which is why it is important for many of the residents to be able to retain their neighbors following the renovation. Apartments will also be adapted for accessibility, which means that many will be able to remain in their homes. That is a benefit not only to the individual but also a major economic win for the municipality.
The project will result in major environmental gains thanks to the passive building technology. Once the conversion of Brogården is complete, energy consumption will have been cut by more than half, from 216 kWh per m2annually to 92 kWh. That figure includes not only heating but also household and building electricity.
Since the construction process has an environmental impact, we have certified the workplace in accordance with Skanska’s own eco-labeling scheme, Green Workplace.
Green Workplace involves us reducing our environmental impact on the workplace in part by using energy-efficient lighting during construction (both inside and outside), maintaining high emissions standards on machinery and more stringent requirements than legislated for chemicals and waste management. We also review our energy consumption on a regular basis. In addition, we do not purchase bottled water and all coffee break food and coffee is eco-labeled.
Brogården is a partnership between Alingsåshem AB and Skanska, which involves an ongoing dialog and the joint development of solutions.
We have collaborated with Alingsåshem many times before, including when we built four of six renovation phases at Östlyckan in Alingsås. Östlyckan is a million homes program area with 300 apartments and is similar, in many ways, to Brogården.
Sustainability – economic, environmental, social and cultural – is one of the project’s most important concepts. In concrete terms, that means, for example, that we are rethinking the entire residential situation including courtyard environments while also making the buildings accessible both inside and out. Among other things, we have removed thresholds and reviewed the placement of card readers at entryways as well as illumination in the stairwells.
Drawing on experiences with the Östlyckan project, Alingsåshem AB and Skanska have applied that knowledge as we transform Brogården. Among other things, we are striving to be as inconspicuous as possible by using empty apartments as offices instead of setting up construction office trailers. In addition, we are preserving the courtyards to the greatest extent possible by using the back sides of the buildings as staging areas and for transports.
We are using a modern project management style. That means that we are capitalizing on everyone’s expertise and experience. To that end, we have morning meetings where we review the entire project as well as charts where we clearly display daily and weekly plans. When everyone is involved and in possession of the same information, then work flows much more smoothly.
Converting existing buildings into passive buildings is an extra challenge. Consequently, we have developed various sealing solutions that we have tested at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden. That effort has resulted in enhanced expertise in the industry regarding passive building construction. We have also invested significant efforts on adding supplemental insulation to the base plate and foundation. The external wall design is entirely new and has also been significantly improved, both in terms of cost and ergonomic implementation.
Since a passive building must be very tight to minimize heat loss, we construct the buildings with extra care. That, in turn, makes it very important to not encapsulate moisture, which can cause mold damage. Consequently, we erect weather barriers over the entire building. This guarantees humidity control while ensuring that work progresses, regardless of the weather.
The buildings are sealed using a plastic layer that ensures that all air leaving the building goes through the ventilation system. In that way, we are able to capture all heat and avoid having warm, humid indoor air escaping into the walls where it could cause condensation and mold problems. Every apartment is then pressure tested to ensure tightness.
Heat losses from a build occur through conduction losses (the heat that escapes through walls and windows) and ventilation losses (the heat that escapes through the ventilation system).
In order to minimize conduction losses, the walls are insulated with 440 mm of insulation and the attic floor with 400 mm of insulation. Windows are replaced with windows that have low U values (the U value is a measure of heat loss) while the base plate and foundation walls are insulated.
Ventilation losses are limited by having a high efficiency FTX system installed. These units are shared by the entire building and situated in a common fan room on the top floor.
Thermal bridges have also been minimized by enclosing the former balconies and making them part of the living rooms. New, prefabricated concrete balconies are being mounted on the exterior of the buildings to eliminate the risk of thermal bridges.
In conjunction with the conversion, we are also increasing the number of different types of apartments. Previously, the buildings only had two different layouts of two and three-room apartments. The new buildings have a greater variety and more apartments with disability access including access to an elevator. We have even removed stairs into the entryways as well as throughout the entire courtyard environment to increase accessibility.
Energy consumption will be reduced from 216 kWh per m2annually to 92 kWh. That figure includes not only heating but also household and building electricity.
”The added value of a Green Workplace for us as the client is that we are contributing to a sustainable society by taking a comprehensive approach, both in what we are building and in how we are building.”
Ing-Marie Odegren, Alingsåshem